Immediate Actions

  • Refuse
    Avoid single use items
  • Reduce
    Only buy things if strictly needed, and choose less packaging.
  • Reuse
    Buy second-hand items, or if new – choose products built to last.
  • Recycle
    Recycle what you can, and choose products made from recycled materials.
  • Know your hood
    Find out what recycling and reuse options are near you.
  • Compost
    Find a way to compost your organic waste.
  • Let your money talk
    Vote with your wallet – buy less wasteful products. And demand more of them from producers!
  • Assess
    Do a personal waste audit, to see where to improve.
  • Spread it!
    Spread good ideas, and involve family and friends.

Long-term actions

  • Borrow
    Create informal networks to lend out items.
  • Be a leader
    No way to recycle? Consider starting a small recycling business yourself.
  • Stay smart
    Educate yourself about the issues and solutions.

Governments (local & national)

Immediate Actions

  • Plan and measure
    Make or renew your waste management (WM) strategy, and set goals, priorities, and deadlines. For example a National WM Act, National WM Plan, or local WM programme.
    – Prioritise waste reduction. Set targets for the amount of waste produced, ban unnecessary items like many single-use plastics, redesign products to be durable, repairable, and reusable.
    – Outline how to better manage any waste that is produced, i.e. by making separate collections of different waste types compulsory, and ensuring recycling takes place as close as possible to where the waste is produced.
  • Responsibilities
    Define roles and responsibilities of local governments and companies. For example, introduce Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) schemes for industry and businesses to fund separate collections and recycling, and define whether recycling targets must be met at regional or municipal level.

Long-term actions

  • Bring in rules Once you have a strategy, support this with regulations defining permitting powers and procedures, waste accounting procedures, monitoring programmes, etc.
  • Consequences
    Plan in enforcement and policing – what will you do if local authorities do not meet the targets? What will the penalties be for littering?
  • Money
    Make goals set in the plan have funding, e.g. for prevention measures, awareness raising, reuse activities, waste collection infrastructure, incentives for local businesses to become less wasteful or for people to implement local recycling and composting activities. The economic benefits of better management of resources, reduced collection and disposal costs and jobs created in the new system will pay off!
  • Support the flow
    Support the development of markets for recycled materials, e.g. promote Green Public Procurement, and give priority to recycled products.
  • Nurture
    Trust the creativity of businesses, and create a favourable environment that supports waste-savvy innovations.
  • Rethink the cycle
    Promote Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) as a way to finance better management of waste items like packaging and electronics, and to support redesign of products by industries, in order to minimise the use of hard to-recycle materials. Promote Deposit Refund Systems (DRS) as the best way to ensure materials are preserved!
  • Knowledge Support lifelong learning and research to build society’s knowledge and skills around resource use and waste management.


Immediate actions

  • Rethink 

Recognise waste as a resource, and an opportunity to increase profitability – recycling and composting reduces disposal costs, and triggers new business opportunities.

  • Educate
    Teach the customer – is your product recyclable?
    How and where should it be disposed of?
  • Be a pioneer
    Deposit schemes (e.g. putting a small deposit on drinks containers to ensure take-back) can be launched even if no national scheme is in place.
  • Wrap it smart
    Always opt for less packaging, smarter packaging, and reusable packaging. The same goes for products!
  • Stay safe
    Compost can only be used in agriculture if not polluted by other waste. Recycling may require specific safeguards for workers. Some plastics include harmful substances, making them unsuitable e.g. for food packaging or toys.
  • The afterlife
    What will happen to your product after use? Recyclable packaging that is in an area with no recycling collections may end up as litter. If compostable plastics end up in landfill they emit methane as they biodegrade. 

Long-term actions

  • Inspire others Create new markets based around innovative, reusable or resource-savvy products.
  • Rethink business models ’Do more with less’ – e.g. create lending services, selling the use of an item, not the item itself.
  • Rethink resources Use recycled materials rather than virgin resources – the possibilities for recycled glass, plastics, paper and metals are huge. Composted organics are a great replacement for peat or mineral fertilisers. 

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